Area of Expertise
- International Marketing
Professor Pan does research in two major areas. One is the branding strategies in cross cultural settings, such as the impact to linguistic differences on branding. The other is the market entry strategies of multinational corporations, such as setting up joint ventures, operating wholly owned subsidiaries, and managing holding companies in foreign markets. He has published in Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of International Business Studies, Strategic Management Journal, and so on. In particular, he has 13 publications in Journal of International Business Studies.
2019 Yigang Pan was awarded Gold Medal as one of leading contributors to the first 50 years of Journal of International Business Studies.
2017 Yigang Pan is the 7th most published author in the first 47 years of Journal of International Business Studies.
2010 Three articles (Pan, 1996; Tse, Pan, & Au, 1997; Pan & Chi, 1999) were among the top 15 articles on FDI in China, according to Fetscherin, M., Voss, H., & Gugler, P. (2010), “30 years of foreign direct investment to China: An interdisciplinary literature review,” International Business Review, 19: 235-246.
2010 Yigang Pan was the 23rd most productive international business scholar in 29 elite journals (1996-2008), according to Trevino, L.J., Mixon, F.G., Funk, C.A., & Inkpen, A.C. (2010), “A perspective on the state of the field: International business publications in the elite journals as a measure of institutional and faculty productivity,” International Business Review, 19: 378-387.
2008 The 3rd most prolific author in Journal of International Business Studies (1996-2006), according to Xu, S., Yalcinkaya, G., & Seggie, S.H. (2008), “Prolific authors and institutions in leading international business journals,” Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 25: 189-207.
2008 The article (Pan, 1996) was one of the 15 most frequently cited articles in the leading six international business journals during 1996-2006, according to Griffith, D. A., Cavusgil, S. T., & Xu, S.(2008), “Emerging theme in international business research,” Journal of International Business Studies, 39: 1220-1235.
Li, Y., Pan, Y., Tian, L., Tse, C. and Xiang, X. (2021), "Social Movements and International Business Activities of Firms", Journal of International Business Studies, 52, 1200-1214.
We examine social movements that arise from tensions between countries. From a neo-institutional view, we posit that social movements targeting another country generate powerful pressures on firms doing business with the targeted country. Although informal and non-governmental, these pressures may coerce firms into curtailing their business activities with the targeted country. Empirically, we analyzed the 2012 anti-Japanese social movement in China using a panel dataset of Chinese-listed firms from 2006 to 2017. Through a quasi-experimental design and difference-in-difference method, we found that this social movement was associated with a significant reduction in Chinese firms’ import from Japan, as well as export and FDI activities. Furthermore, we found that animosity against the targeted country and firms’ network connectivity exacerbated this effect, while firms’ political capital weakened it. We also found that the impact of this social movement existed for four years after the movement subsided. We contribute by showing that social movements have significant impacts on firms’ international business activities. Firms need to pay attention to informal pressures from social movements, and proactively adapt their cross-border business activities. In today’s digital era, opinions and sentiments can quickly snowball into massive collective forces in the virtual and actual worlds.
Huang, D., Pan, Y. and Xu, J. (2019), "Intra-Firm Subsidiary Grouping and MNC Subsidiary Performance in China", Journal of International Management, 25(2), 1-16.
Many multinational corporations (MNCs) operate multiple subsidiaries in a foreign country. Drawing upon literature of organizational network and business group, we hypothesize that the number of subsidiaries of an MNC has an impact on subsidiary financial performance in China. We further hypothesized two moderating effects, namely subsidiary’s country of origin and subsidiary size. The results show that subsidiary grouping effect is more salient for subsidiaries from Japan and South Korea, and that larger subsidiaries are less affected by the subsidiary grouping effect. Our empirical results were based on a sample of 40,315 MNC subsidiaries in China. The findings underscore the importance of group-based competitive advantages of MNC subsidiaries in international business.
Huang, D., Pan, Y. and Teng, L. (2017), "The Performance of MNE Subsidiaries in China: Does It Matter to Be Close to the Political or Business Hub?", Journal of International Management, 23(3), 292-305.
This study examines the impact of distance on financial performance of multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiaries in China. We hypothesized and found that MNE subsidiaries performed better when located closer to the country’s business hub, but performed less well when located closer to the political hub. We also hypothesized that distance effects are moderated by subsidiary size, subsidiary network, and state capital contribution to subsidiary. Our findings were based upon 45,248 MNE subsidiaries with location and geographic distance measured at the prefectural level in China.
Pan, Y. (2017), "Strategic Motives, Institutional Environments, and Firm’s FDI Ownership", Multinational Business Review, 25(4), 307-327.
The study conceptualizes how firms’ strategic motives interact with the heterogeneity of host country institutional environments in determining the subsidiary ownership. The author hypothesizes and tests two interaction effects. The study found that firms with market-seeking motives are more affected by the heterogeneity of host country institutional environments, while firms with resource-seeking motives are less affected by the heterogeneity. The empirical findings are based on a sample of overseas subsidiaries reported in the annual reports of listed firms in China.
Huang, D., Lu, X., Pan, Y., Teng, L. and Yu, M. (2014), "Host-country Headquarters of U.S. Firms in China: An Empirical Study", Journal of International Management, 20(4), 379-389.
Recent studies show that large multinational enterprises (MNEs) adopt an organizational unit, called host-country headquarters (HCHQ), in key foreign countries (Ma and Delios, 2010; Ma, Delios and Lau, 2013). In this study, we examine the factors that are associated with the establishment of an HCHQ by US firms in China. We hypothesize that an HCHQ is associated with both firm-specific factors and host country-specific factors. We find that an HCHQ is associated with the firm’s scope diversification and degree of internationalization, and the strategic importance of foreign host country and subsidiary diversification in that host country. The findings are based on archival data of U.S. Fortune 500 firms. The findings add to the understanding of an important organizational structure of large U.S. firms in China, and possibly to MNE structures more widely in key foreign countries.
Huang, D., Lu, X., Pan, Y., Supapol, A., Teng, L. and Wang, Z. (2014), "Firms’ FDI Ownership: The Influence of Government Ownership and Legislative Connections", Journal of International Business Studies, 45(8), 1029-1043.
The level of ownership in an overseas subsidiary has been an important issue in international business. Existing literature, based on transaction cost theory, predicts that firms prefer higher ownership for subsidiaries located in favorable foreign institutional environments. We propose two moderating factors to this prediction: governments as owners of firms and firms’ legislative connections. We hypothesized that the level of subsidiary ownership was less affected by the heterogeneity of foreign institutional environments for firms with a higher level of government ownership and for firms with legislative connections. These two interaction effects were tested using a sample of overseas subsidiaries documented in the 2010 annual reports of listed Chinese firms. The empirical findings provide robust support for the hypothesized effects. This study offers fresh insight on the role of government and political factors in firms’ internationalization activities.
Project Title Role Award Amount Year Awarded Granting Agency Project Title RolePrincipal Investigator Award Amount$ Year Awarded2011 Granting AgencySchulich School of Business - Research Fellowship