Area of Expertise
- Business Ethics
- Corporate Social Responsibility
- Cross-Cultural Management
- Organizational Justice
- Strategic Management
Ruodan is an Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior in the area of Organization Studies of Schulich School of Business at the York University. Her research interests lie in corporate social responsibility, cross-cultural management, business ethics/ethical decision-making, organizational justice, and strategic human resources management. Her work is published in Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Personnel Psychology, and Journal of Management.
Her teaching interests include organizational behavior and human resources management. She received the University of British Columbia Graduate Student Teaching Award and was nominated for University of British Columbia Commerce Undergraduate Society Teaching Excellence Award in 2010.
2019 Academy of Management Annual Conference MOC Division’s Best Submission with Practical Implications Award
2017 2017 International Association for Business and Society (IABS) and Brigham Young University (BYU) Marriott School of Management prize for Best Published Paper award
2016 The Associates’ Achievement Awards in Research (University of Manitoba)
2016 Emerald Citations of Excellence Award for 2016
2011 Academy of Management OB Division's Award for Best Paper with International Implications
2009 Best Paper Award at Business Ethics Quarterly for year 2008
Shao, R., He, L., Chang, C. H., Wang, M., *Baker, N., Pan, J. and Jin, Y. (Forthcoming), "Employees’ Reactions Towards COVID-19 Information Exposure: Insights From Terror Management Theory and Generativity Theory", Journal of Applied Psychology.
Amarnani, R., Restubog, S., Shao, R., Cheng, D. and Bordia, P. (2022), "A Self-verification Perspective on Customer Mistreatment and Customer-directed Organizational Citizenship Behaviors", Journal of Organizational Behavior.
Customer mistreatment events play a major role in employees’ subsequent customer service behaviors. We extend this line of research by developing a self-verification account of the relationship between customer mistreatment and customer-directed OCBs (OCB-Cs) by examining theoretically prescribed novel mechanisms (i.e., self-verification) and boundary conditions (i.e., self-esteem, entity customer appreciation) for this relationship. We conducted a programmatic series of studies using daily diary (Study 1), audio vignette (Study 2), and behavioral experiment (Study 3) designs to test the proposed model. The overall pattern of results showed that customer mistreatment led employees to feel less self-verified, especially among those with higher trait self-esteem. These employees in turn were more likely to withhold OCB-Cs, especially among those perceiving lower levels of entity customer appreciation. Overall, these results extend our understanding of the role of the self-concept in how employees experience and react to customer mistreatment.
Chang, C. H., Shao, R., Wang, M. and Baker, N. (2021), "Workplace Interventions in Response to COVID-19: An Occupational Health Psychology Perspective", Occupational Health Science, 5, 1-23.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has imposed significant threats to individuals’ physical health and has substantially changed the socioeconomic order and the nature of our work and life all over the world. To guide organizations to design effective workplace interventions to mitigate the negative impacts of COVID-19, we take the occupational health psychology (OHP) perspective to propose a framework that highlights important areas for organizations to intervene in order to better protect workers’ physical health and safety and to promote workers’ psychological well-being. Specifically, we integrate the prevention-based public health model with the Total Worker Health (TWH) and OHP-based approaches to propose a comprehensive set of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions that target different groups of employees with varied exposure risks to the new coronavirus. We believe these proposed interventions can contribute positively to the development of healthy and safe work. Implications of these proposed interventions for workers, organizations, and policy makers are also
Song, Y. H., Skarlicki, D.P., Shao, R. and Park, J. (2021), "Reducing Customer-Directed Deviant Behavior: The Role of Psychological Detachment and Supervisory Unfairness", Journal of Management, 47(8), 2008-2036.Keywords
Conservation of resources (COR) theory proposes that mistreatment by customers (termed “customer mistreatment”) can deplete employees’ resources, lessen their ability to regulate their behaviors, and result in them engaging in customer-directed deviant behavior. However, COR has been criticized for its lack of precision regarding how this process unfolds. Integrating the person-situation interactionist perspective with COR theory, the present paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of COR theory by explicating how individual characteristics and work context—namely, psychological detachment and supervisory unfairness—can combine to attenuate/exacerbate the relationship between customer mistreatment and employees’ customer-directed deviant behavior. Using a multilevel field study with 1,092 daily-based surveys among 157 Korean call-center representatives, our results show that frontline employees’ emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between customer mistreatment and customer-directed deviant behavior that occurs on the next working day. When faced with customer mistreatment, employees with lower (vs. higher) psychological detachment were more likely to be emotionally exhausted and engage in customer-directed deviant behavior on the next working day. Moreover, their emotional exhaustion predicted customer-directed deviant behavior more so when their supervisors treated them unfairly (vs. fairly). Taken together, the results show that the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion was strongest among employees with low (vs. high) psychological detachment and who reported more (vs. less) supervisory unfairness. Theoretical, methodological, and practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Cooke, F.L., Jones, D.A., Newman, A. and Shao, R. (2019), "Advances in Employee-Focused Micro-Level Research on Corporate Social Responsibility: Situating New Contributions Within the Current State of the Literature", Journal of Business Ethics, 157(2), 293-302.
This editorial outlines the articles included in the special thematic symposium on corporate social responsibility and employees and highlights their contributions to the literature. In doing so, it highlights the novel theoretical and empirical insights provided by the articles, how the articles inform and expand the methods and research designs researchers can use to study phenomena in this area, and identifies promising directions for future research.
Bavik, Y.L., Lam, L.W., Shao, R., Sharp, R. and Tang, R. (2018), "Ethical Leadership and Employee Knowledge Sharing: Exploring Dual-mediation Paths", The Leadership Quarterly, 29(2), 322-332.
Drawing on social learning and self-determination theories, this study investigates the mediating effects of controlled motivation for knowledge sharing and moral identity in the relationship between ethical leadership and employee knowledge sharing. We conducted a field study with 337 full-time employees to test our hypotheses. Results supported the mediating effects of both controlled motivation and moral identity in accounting for the relationship between ethical leadership and employee knowledge sharing. Our study is among the first to examine whether and why ethical leadership predicts employee knowledge sharing. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Kim, T.Y., Nadisic, T., Paddock, E.L., Rupp, D.E., Shao, R. and Skarlicki, D.P. (2018), "Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement: The Moderating Role of CSR‐specific Relative Autonomy and Individualism", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(5), 559-579.Keywords
Growing evidence suggests that employees’ perceptions of their employer’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) relate positively to employee work engagement. This is an important connection given the impact of work engagement on both employee health and organizational productivity, as well as the importance of CSR for society. In this paper, however, we argue that the CSR perceptions–work engagement relationship cannot be assumed to be universal and that both individual and contextual factors will place meaningful boundary conditions on this effect. Integrating motivation and cross‐cultural theories, we propose that the relationship between employees’ CSR perceptions and their work engagement will be stronger among employees who perceive higher CSR‐specific relative autonomy (i.e., employees’ contextualized motivation for complying with, advocating for, and/or participating in CSR activities) and that this amplification effect will be stronger among employees who are higher on individualism (studied at the individual‐level of analysis). These predictions were mostly supported among a sample of 673 working adults from five different regions (Canada, China [mainland], France, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and while controlling for first‐party justice perceptions, moral identity, employee demographics, and employer/nation characteristics. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Folger, R., Rupp, D.R., Shao, R., Shapiro, D.L. and Skarlicki, D.P. (2017), "A Critical Analysis of the Conceptualization and Measurement of Organizational Justice: Is It Time for Reassessment?", Academy of Management Annals, 11(2), 919-959.
This paper provides a historical review of the conceptualization and measurement of organizational justice. We demonstrate how, over time, a dominant norm for conceptualizing and measuring justice has emerged. We posit that although consistent conceptualization and measurement across justice studies can enable the accumulation of knowledge, if the dominant approach is incomplete, this can impede the accumulation of knowledge and risk construct reification. We suggest that these risks are high given that (a) contemporary approaches to measuring fairness perceptions fail to capture the full domain of organizational justice as it was initially conceptualized by early scholars; (b) despite a foundation of “classic” theories, our field has yet to systematically map the justice domain; and (c) the normative operationalizations of organizational justice are based on observations that predate the 21st century workplace. We offer suggestions for future research and new approaches to assessing workplace fairness. Our paper’s goal, ultimately, is to reconsider how justice is conceptualized and measured so that the findings obtained from future empirical justice studies can go beyond the constraints of the current paradigm.
Danielle, D., Shao, R., Skarlicki, D.P., Song, Y.H., Wang, M. and Van, J. (2016), "Extending the Multifoci Perspective: The Role of Supervisor Justice and Moral Identity in the Relationship between Customer Justice and Customer-directed Sabotage", Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(1), 108-121.
The multifoci perspective of justice proposes that individuals tend to target their (in)justice reactions toward the perceived source of the mistreatment. Empirical support for target-specific reactions, however, has been mixed. To explore theoretically relevant reasons for these discrepant results and address unanswered questions in the multifoci justice literature, the present research examines how different justice sources might interactively predict target-specific reactions, and whether these effects occur as a function of moral identity. Results from a sample of North American frontline service employees (N = 314, Study 1) showed that among employees with lower levels of moral identity, low supervisor justice exacerbated the association between low customer justice and customer-directed sabotage, whereas this exacerbation effect was not observed among employees with higher levels of moral identity. This 3-way interaction effect was replicated in a sample of South Korean employees (N = 265, Study 2). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Chang, C.H., Liu, Y., Shao, R., Shi, J., Wang, M. and Zhou, L. (2015), "Work-Family Conflict, Emotional Exhaustion, and Aggression Toward Others: The Moderating Role of Workplace Interpersonal Conflict and Perceived Managerial Family Support", Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 793-808.Keywords
Taking a resource-based self-regulation perspective, this study examined afternoon emotional exhaustion as a mediator linking the within-person relations between morning work–family conflict and later employee displaced aggression in the work and family domains. In addition, it examined resource-related contextual factors as moderators of these relations. The theoretical model was tested using daily diary data from 125 employees. Data were collected at 4 time points during each workday for 3 consecutive weeks. Multilevel modeling analysis showed that morning family-to-work conflict was positively related to afternoon emotional exhaustion, which in turn predicted displaced aggression toward supervisors and coworkers in the afternoon and displaced aggression toward family members in the evening. In addition, morning workplace interpersonal conflict exacerbated the impact of morning work-to-family conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion, whereas perceived managerial family support alleviated the impact of morning family-to-work conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion. These findings indicate the importance of adopting a self-regulation perspective to understand work–family conflict at work and its consequences (i.e., displaced aggression) in both work and family domains.
Chang, Y.K., May, D.R. and Shao, R. (2015), "Does Ethical Membership Matter? Moral Identification and its Organizational Implications", Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 681-694.
This research meaningfully connects the literatures on identification and business ethics by proposing the new construct of moral identification. Moral identification is defined here as the perception of oneness or belongingness associated with an organization that exhibits ethical traits (e.g., care, kindness, and compassion), which also involves a deliberate concern of the membership with an ethical organization. Integrating social identity theory with theory on the moral self, this research examines an overall theoretical model where moral identification plays a significant role in explaining employee attraction, motivation, and retention (i.e., 3 components of the overall theoretical framework). These components were examined separately in 3 empirical studies and findings from these studies first revealed that moral identification explained why job seekers with strong (vs. weak) moral identities were more attracted to a socially responsible organization (Study 1). Second, moral identification was associated with lower employee unethical proorganizational behavior (Study 2). Finally, moral identification was negatively related to employees’ turnover intentions. Organizations’ legal compliance moderated this relation such that it was stronger when organizations have higher (vs. lower) levels of legal compliance (Study 3). Taken together, these studies suggest that moral identification offers new insights in explaining both potential and current employees’ behaviors when morality is contextually relevant and subjectively meaningful. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.
Shao, R. and Skarlicki, D.P. (2014), "Service Employees’ Reactions to Mistreatment by Customers: A Comparison Between North America and East Asia", Personnel Psychology, 67(1), 23-59.
The authors proposed that customer service employees’ reactions to mistreatment by customers can vary between North American and East Asian employees due to differences in their cultural values. Customer mistreatment was predicted to be associated with direct, active, and target-specific reactions (i.e., sabotage directed toward the source of mistreatment) more so among North American employees as compared to East Asian employees. In contrast, customer mistreatment was predicted to relate to more indirect, passive, and target-general reactions (i.e., withdraw organizational citizenship behavior directed toward customers in general) among employees in East Asia as compared to employees in North America. A field study of customer service employees (N = 213) working in the same hotel chain in China and Canada found support for these predictions. Mediation analyses showed that individualism and collectivism accounted for these differences. Theoretical and practical implications are provided, and future directions are discussed.
Rupp, D.E., Shao, R. and Skarlick, D. (2013), "The Psychology of Corporate Social Responsibility and Humanitarian Work: A Person-centric Perspective", Industrial Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6(4), 361-368.
The field of industrial–organizational (I–O) psychology has and will continue to experience periods of growth and change. Our field has shifted and transformed along with society, through the industrial revolution, the human relations movement, the globalization of business, and the information age. And here we are, in 2013, at the cusp of what seems to be the beginning of a new stage in our development, this time evidenced by the marked attention that both the science and practice arms of I–O psychology are placing on issues of corporate social responsibility (CSR, Aguinis, 2011; Cruse, 2010; Scott et al. 2013)
Jones, K.S., Rupp, D.E., Shao, R. and Skarlick, D. (2013), "Employee Justice Across Cultures: A Meta-analytic Review", Journal of Management, 39(1), 263-301.
This article explores the moderating influence of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance) on the relationship between justice perceptions and both supervisor- and employer-related outcomes. The integration of justice theories with Hofstede’s national culture typology implies multiple, and potentially competing, propositions regarding the impact of culture on justice effects. To sort out these issues, the authors present meta-analytic findings summarizing data from 495 unique samples, representing over 190,000 employees working in 32 distinct countries and regions. Results indicate that justice effects are strongest among nations associated with individualism, femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and low power distance. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the practice of justice across cultures.
Shao, R. (2013), "Applicants’ and Employees’ Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility: The Moderating Effects of Firstparty Justice Perceptions and Moral Identity", Personnel Psychology, 66(4), 895-933.
This research explored individuals’ reactions to perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) using a multimotive framework. In 2 studies, the authors explored the boundary conditions of CSR effects among job applicants and internal employees. A scenario‐based experiment (N = 81) showed that the effect of CSR perceptions on job applicants’ job pursuit intentions was mitigated by applicants’ first‐party justice experiences, whereas it was amplified by their moral identity (Study 1). Survey data from 245 full‐time employees (Study 2) further supported the interactive effects revealed in Study 1. Specifically, first‐party justice perceptions attenuated the positive relationship between employees’ CSR perceptions and their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB); and the relationship between CSR perceptions and OCB was more pronounced among employees high (versus low) in moral identity. Our findings bridge the CSR and organizational justice literatures, and reveal that the effects of individuals’ CSR perceptions are more complicated than previously thought. The findings shed light on micro (employee)‐level CSR phenomena and offer implications for both research and practice.
Jones, K., Liao, H. Rupp, D.E. and Shao, R., "The Utility of a Multifoci Approach to the Study of Organizational Justice: A Meta-analytic Investigation into the Consideration of Normative Rules, Moral Accountability, Bandwidth-fidelity, and Social Exchange", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 123(2), 159-185.Keywords
Multifoci justice pulls from research on social exchange theory to argue that despite the proliferation of rule sets in the literature (often referred to as the “types” of justice), individuals seek to hold some party accountable for the violation/upholding of such rules, and it is these parties (e.g., supervisors, the organization as a whole) that are most likely to be the recipients of attitudes and behaviors (i.e., target similarity effects). To explore these issues, we meta-analytically (k = 647, N = 235,682) compared the predictive validities of source- vs. type-based justice perceptions and found that (a) multifoci justice perceptions more strongly predicted outcomes directed at matched sources than did type-based justice perceptions, (b) multifoci justice perceptions more strongly predicted target similar than dissimilar outcomes, and (c) the relationships between multifoci justice perceptions and target similar outcomes were mediated by source-specific social exchange.
Park, J., Shao, R., Skarlicki, D.P. and Song, Y.H. (in press), "Reducing Customer-Directed Deviant Behavior: The Role of Psychological Detachment and Supervisory Unfairness", Journal of Management.Keywords
Project Title Role Award Amount Year Awarded Granting Agency Project TitleThe Roles of Organizational Contextual Factors in Worker Reactions to COVID-19 RoleCo-I Award Amount$100,991.00 Year Awarded2020 Granting AgencyNational Science Foundation (USA) Project TitleCorporate social responsibility in employee ability, motivation, opportunity, and performance. RolePI Award Amount$64,780.00 Year Awarded2016 Granting AgencySocial Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)