Area of Expertise
- Buyer-Supplier Relationships
- Complexity Theory
- Mass Customization
- Operations Management
- Organizational Learning
- Organizational Strategy
- Supply Chain Management
Dr. Murat Kristal completed his doctoral degree (PhD) in Operations, Technology and Innovation from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. With a research focus on supply chain and operations management, Dr. Kristal has completed projects in resource allocation in manufacturing, the impact of competition on supply chain, and the development of mass customization capabilities through organizational learning and knowledge management. Channeling his passion for analytics and artificial intelligence, he pioneered the first analytics programs of its kind in Canada. His expertise in innovation, ideation and research is evident through his distinct ability to connect business problems with analytical and AI solutions. He is the founding Program Director of both the Master of Business Analytics (MBAN) and the Master of Management in Artificial Intelligence (MMAI) programs at the Schulich School of Business. He is an Associate Professor of Operations Management and Information Systems.
2020 Recipient of Minister of Colleges and Universities’ Award of Excellence.
2017 Recipient of York Research Leader Recognition.
2016 Recipient of 2016 Best 40 Under 40 Professors award from Poets & Quants.
2011 JOM Best Paper Finalist for the article titled “The effect of an ambidextrous supply chain strategy on combinative competitive capabilities and business performance” with X. Huang, and A.V. Roth.
2011 Outstanding Paper Award Winner for the article titled “The effect of quality management on mass customization capability” with X. Huang, and R.G. Schroeder at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence
2009 Highly Commended Paper Award Winner for the article titled “The climate for supply chain cooperation: The impact of buyer and supplier beliefs on behavior”, with D. Johnston at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence
2004 Best Dissertation Proposal Award, The International Society of Logistics, SOLE,
2003 SAP Doctoral Fellow, UNC-SAP Alliance
2003 Best Dissertation Proposal Award, The International Society of Logistics, SOLE
2003 Finalist in the Juran Fellowship given by The Juran Center for Leadership in Quality at University of Minnesota
1998-2000 University scholarship for tuition waiver for MBA from Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
Cao, T., Cook, W., Kristal, M.M. (2022), "Has the Technological Investment Been Worth It? Assessing the Aggregate Efficiency of Non-Homogeneous Bank Holding Companies in the Digital Age", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 178: 121576.
Using panel data from 2010 to 2016, this study investigates how well banking institutions perform in investing in digital technologies and utilizing their resources in the digital age. A conventional data envelopment (DEA) analysis model is first applied, followed by a Malmquist index analysis. Results suggest that bank holding companies (BHCs) have failed to benefit from technological progress due to inefficient resource management. As such, we propose a novel resource-allocation model to address the issues, particularly allowing non-homogeneous BHCs to be compared with their true peers and highlighting practical insights into the allocation and reallocation of shared resources. Aggregate efficiency scores are measured and then regressed against selected explanatory variables. The empirical findings indicate that BHCs should strengthen their innovation capabilities and improve their diversification levels to gain better performance in utilizing resources. The results also offer novel managerial implications for collaboration with financial technology (FinTech) firms. Specifically, the explanatory variable, partnership, is shown to have a moderating effect on the relationship between the size and aggregate efficiency of BHCs. Larger BHCs could benefit from collaborating with FinTech, while smaller BHCs appear to be better off acting alone.
Onder, O., Cook, W., Kristal, M.M. (2021), "Does Quality Help the Financial Viability of Hospitals? A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach", Socio-Economic Planning Sciences.
In this work, we analyze the financial viability of U.S. hospitals by investigating the impact of clinical and experiential quality as its determinants. We adopt Simar and Wilson’s two-stage bootstrapped truncated regression approach. Specifically, we use data envelopment analysis (DEA) in the first stage to estimate efficiency scores. Then, we use truncated regression estimation with the double-bootstrap method to test the significance of the quality variables. Given the financial problems recently experienced by U.S. hospitals, we use readmission rates and costs as our outputs to investigate how well hospitals can lower readmission rates while minimizing their costs, since recent policy changes have tied a portion of hospital reimbursements to their readmission rates, making both variables crucial outcome goals. We find that both clinical and experiential quality are significantly associated with the higher financial viability of hospitals. Further, focusing on these two quality dimensions together has additional benefits.
Ahmed, M., Gattiker, T., Kristal, M. and Pagelland, M. (2019), "Micro-Foundations of Supply Chain Integration: An Activity-Based Analysis", Logistics, 3(2), 12.
A large body of literature has studied supply chain integration (SCI) at the macro (firm or dyad) level. However, the micro-foundations of SCI that highlight the range of different activities and choices firms have in implementing integration have not been studied. This paper identifies and analyzes integrative activities or practices that form the micro-units of firm-level SCI. Qualitative analysis yields nine elements of integration that emerge from the large number of integrative practices. In doing so, the paper maps out the structure of the broad SCI construct and discusses the theoretical repercussions of this new approach. New theoretical insights and research directions are identified based on this new micro-level activity-based view of SCI. This paper shifts the focus from where integration is done (customer vs. supplier integration) to what integration entails. SCI has become a very broad construct over time. This paper is a significant and systematic step in unraveling the structure of this broad conceptual domain. It improves nascent ideas about the multiple dimensions of integration by identifying elements based on a comprehensive list of different integrative activities that firms undertake.
Ahmed, M., Gattiker, T., Kristal, M. and Pagell, M. (2019), "Building High Performance Supplychain Relationships for Dynamic Environments", Business Process Management Journal, 26(1), 80-101.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how different forms of integration interact with environmental dynamism to influence the outcomes of a buyer–supplier relationship (BSR). Specifically, the authors assess the impact of communication, operational process integration (OPI) and joint knowledge exploration (JKE) on the economic value and competitive differentiation generated by the BSR. Furthermore, the authors assess the moderating role of environmental dynamism in changing the performance implications of these different forms of integration.
The authors empirically test the theoretical model using survey data collected from North America. The authors apply techniques such as confirmatory factor analysis, regression and a variety of robustness checks to ensure the validity of the findings.
The results indicate that OPI and JKE are useful in generating higher value from key supply chain relationships. However, communication does not directly influence performance outcomes, rather it assists in the implementation of other forms of integration. In stable environments, better returns can be obtained from focusing on OPI, while in dynamic environments JKE becomes far more important.
This study shows that different aspects of integration have very different performance implications and that selective integration can outperform broad-based integration in some conditions. More importantly, the performance implications depend on environmental dynamism in unique ways, where greater integration is not always the best response to dynamic business conditions. The results allow managers to make better decisions regarding what forms of integration to establish in key supply chain relationships.
Chen, M., Kristal, M. and Zhu, M. (2018), "Modeling the Impacts of Uncertain Carbon Tax Policy on Maritime Fleet Mix Strategy and Carbon Mitigation", Transport, 33(3), 707-717.Keywords
The maritime transport industry continues to draw international attention on significant Greenhouse Gas emissions. The introduction of emissions taxes aims to control and reduce emissions. The uncertainty of carbon tax policy affects shipping companies’ fleet planning and increases costs. We formulate the fleet planning problem under carbon tax policy uncertainty a multi-stage stochastic integer-programming model for the liner shipping companies. We develop a scenario tree to represent the structure of the carbon tax stochastic dynamics, and seek the optimal planning, which is adaptive to the policy uncertainty. Non-anticipativity constraint is applied to ensure the feasibility of the decisions in the dynamic environment. For the sake of comparison, the Perfect Information (PI) model is introduced as well. Based on a liner shipping application of our model, we find that under the policy uncertainty, companies charter more ships when exposed to high carbon tax risk, and spend more on fleet operation; meanwhile the CO2 emission volume will be reduced.
Ahmed, M., Gattiker, T., Kristal, M. and Pagell, M. (2017), "Towards a Classification of Supply Chain Relationships: A Routine Based Perspective", Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 22(4), 341-374.Keywords
This paper studies buyer–supplier relationships (BSRs) by taking a routine-based approach and develops a taxonomy of BSRs. Recent advances in the BSR literature have shown that firms implement a host of diverse routines, called integrative practices, with their supply chain partners. Relationships differ based on what integrative practices are present in them. This paper aims to develop a taxonomy of supply chain relationships based on integrative practices measured at the relationship level.
The authors use survey data collected from North American manufacturers to establish the measurement properties of new relationship level constructs that represent different aspects of integration. Cluster analysis is used with these new constructs to develop a taxonomy of supply chain relationships. Regression and bootstrapping techniques are used to establish the predictive validity and stability of the taxonomy.
The results show four distinct types of relationships. On comparison, the authors find salient differences between their results and past classifications. As a result of taking a routine-based multidimensional view of integration, the authors find two types of relationships that have not been discovered by past taxonomies.
The new relationship level constructs will allow academics to have greater precision in their research questions on BSRs, as not all aspects of integration behave in the same manner. The four types of relationships identified by this study provide a useful framework to manage supply chain relationships for practitioners.
Day, J., Kristal, M., Pathak, S. and Sawaya, W. (2015), "Sensing Abnormal Resource Flow Using Adaptive Limit Process Charts in a Complex Supply Network", Decision Sciences, 46(5), 961–979.
Supply networks are becoming increasingly complex with multiple overlapping relationships between firms that may span across industries. Consequently, inventory management is becoming more difficult as managers have to cope with variability in the supply flows that originate from different parts of the network. Managers that quickly sense abnormal flows may intervene and adapt their inventory policies in response to system changes. In this article, we present a framework for sensing abnormal flows originating within the upstream supply network of a focal organization. Our framework combines time series modeling with process charts to identify abnormal flow patterns in the incoming supply streams. It is a flexible framework that uses off‐the‐shelf technology to provide managers with a process that can be employed for monitoring multiple individual or aggregated data streams originating within any complex system such as complex adaptive supply networks. We illustrate our framework on four years of longitudinal supply data from the second largest food bank in the United States. We identify multiple instances of abnormal supply flows and validate our results through rigorous inventory analysis as well as field‐based expert interviews. We discuss the implications of our findings for inventory management in complex supply networks, both from academic and practitioner points of view.
Ahmed, M., Kristal, M. and Pagell, M. (2014), "Impact of Operational and Marketing Capabilities on Firm Performance: Evidence from Economic Growth and Downturns", International Journal of Production Economics, 154, 59-71.Keywords
Managerial Decision Analysis
Director of the Centre of Excellence in Big Data and Analytics Leadership
MMAI 6050 Artificial Intelligence Consulting Project
MBAN 6090 Analytics Consulting Project,
OMIS 6000 Operations Research
OMIS 6610 Digital Transformation in Services
MBAN 6400 Multivariate Business Analytics
OMIS 7100 Selected Topics in Operations Management
DCAD 7250 Research Design
OMIS 7300 Empirical Research Methods in Operations Management
OMIS 4565 Supply Chain Management
OMIS 2010 Management Science: Modeling and Analysis
OMIS 3010 Management Science: Modeling and Analysis
BA 130 Operations Management
Project Title Role Award Amount Year Awarded Granting Agency Project TitleDigital Transformation Maturity Index for Financial Institutions RolePrincipal Investigator Award Amount$90,545.00 Year Awarded2022 Granting AgencySSHRC Insight Grants Competition Project TitleISA Cybersecurity Inc.—Automation of Event Detection RoleCo-Investigator Award Amount$45,000.00 Year Awarded2021 Granting AgencyMitacs Accelerate Grant Project TitlePlansworth—Transforming Financial Planning Software RoleCo-Investigator Award Amount$45,000.00 Year Awarded2020 Granting AgencyMitacs Accelerate Grant Project TitleDeveloping Business Analytics Capability for Competitive Advantage RolePrincipal Investigator Award Amount$73,394.00 Year Awarded2014 Granting AgencySocial Sciences and Humanities Research Council - Developing Business Analytics Capability for Competitive Advantage