Publications Database

Welcome to the new Schulich Peer-Reviewed Publication Database!

The database is currently in beta-testing and will be updated with more features as time goes on. In the meantime, stakeholders are free to explore our faculty’s numerous works. The left-hand panel affords the ability to search by the following:

  • Faculty Member’s Name;
  • Area of Expertise;
  • Whether the Publication is Open-Access (free for public download);
  • Journal Name; and
  • Date Range.

At present, the database covers publications from 2012 to 2020, but will extend further back in the future. In addition to listing publications, the database includes two types of impact metrics: Altmetrics and Plum. The database will be updated annually with most recent publications from our faculty.

If you have any questions or input, please don’t hesitate to get in touch.


Search Results

Belk, R. (Forthcoming). "Ethical Issues in Service Robotics and Artificial Intelligence", Services Industries Journal.

Open Access Download

Abstract As we come to increasingly rely on robotic and Artificial Intelligence technologies, there are a growing number of ethical concerns to be considered by both service providers and consumers. This review concentrates on five such issues: (1) ubiquitous surveillance, (2) social engineering, (3) military robots, (4) sex robots, and (5) transhumanism. With the partial exception of transhumanism, all of these areas of AI and robotic service interaction already present ethical issues in practice. But all five areas will raise additional concerns in the future as these technologies develop further. These issues have serious consequences and it is imperative to research and address them now. I outline the relevant literatures that can guide this research. The paper fills a gap in recent work on AI and robotics in services. It expands views of service contexts involving robotics and AI, with important implications for public policy and applications of service technologies.

Pashang, S., & Weber, O. (2023). "AI for Sustainable Finance: Governance Mechanisms for Institutional and Societal Approaches", The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence for the Sustainable Development Goals, 203-229.

View Paper

Abstract Artificial intelligence (AI) for sustainable finance has been increasingly employed over the past several years to address the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Two major approaches have emerged: institutional and societal AI for sustainable finance. Broadly described, institutional AI for sustainable finance is used for activities such as environmental, social and governance (ESG) investing, while societal AI for sustainable finance is used to support underbanked and unbanked individuals through financial inclusion initiatives. Despite the growing reliance on such digital tools, particularly during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, governance mechanisms and regulatory frameworks remain fragmented and underutilized or inhibit progress toward the 17 UN SDGs. While major proposals and reports were released by standard-setting and regulatory bodies leading up to 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic indeed caused major setbacks to adoption and implementation, which in turn have also resulted in inconclusive data and lessons learned. As the global community begins to navigate out of the pandemic, policy makers, through multilateral and cross-sector agreements, are looking to renew governance mechanisms that mitigate new and pre-existing risks while cultivating sustainability and facilitating innovation.

Lévesque, M., Obschonka, M. and S. Nambisan (2022). "Pursuing Impactful Entrepreneurship Research Using Artificial Intelligence", Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 46(4).

Open Access Download

Abstract It is time for the entrepreneurship field to come to terms with leading-edge artificial intelligence (AI). AI holds great promise to transform entrepreneurship into a more relevant and impactful field, but it must overcome conflicts between the AI-driven research approach and that of the traditional, theory-based research process. We explore these opportunities and challenges and suggest concrete approaches that entrepreneurship researchers can use to harness the power of AI with rigor and enhance research relevance. We conclude that incorporating the power of AI in entrepreneurship research and managing the associated risks offer a new and “grand challenge” for the field.

Darmody, A. and Zwick, D. (2020). "Manipulate to Empower: Hyper-Relevance and the Contradictions of Marketing in the Age of Surveillance Capitalism", Big Data & Society, 7(1).

Open Access Download

Abstract In this article, we explore how digital marketers think about marketing in the age of Big Data surveillance, automatic computational analyses, and algorithmic shaping of choice contexts. Our starting point is a contradiction at the heart of digital marketing namely that digital marketing brings about unprecedented levels of consumer empowerment and autonomy and total control over and manipulation of consumer decision-making. We argue that this contradiction of digital marketing is resolved via the notion of relevance, which represents what Fredric Jameson calls a symbolic act. The notion of the symbolic act lets us see the centering of relevance as a creative act of digital marketers who undertake to symbolically resolve a contradiction that cannot otherwise be resolved. Specifically, we suggest that relevance allows marketers to believe that in the age of surveillance capitalism, the manipulation of choice contexts and decision-making is the same as consumer empowerment. Put differently, relevance is the moment when marketing manipulation disappears and all that is left is the empowered consumer. To create relevant manipulations that are experienced as empowering by the consumer requires always-on surveillance, massive analyses of consumer data and hyper-targeted responses, in short, a persistent marketing presence. The vision of digital marketing is therefore a fascinating one: marketing disappears at precisely the moment when it extends throughout the life without limit.

Babier, A., Chan, T., Diamant, A., Mahmood, R. and McNiven, A. (2020). "Knowledge-Based Automated Planning with 3-D Generative Adversarial Neural Networks", Medical Physics Journal , 47(2), 297-306.

View Paper

To develop a knowledge‐based automated planning pipeline that generates treatment plans without feature engineering, using deep neural network architectures for predicting three‐dimensional (3D) dose.
Our knowledge‐based automated planning (KBAP) pipeline consisted of a knowledge‐based planning (KBP) method that predicts dose for a contoured computed tomography (CT) image followed by two optimization models that learn objective function weights and generate fluence‐based plans, respectively. We developed a novel generative adversarial network (GAN)‐based KBP approach, a 3D GAN model, which predicts dose for the full 3D CT image at once and accounts for correlations between adjacent CT slices. Baseline comparisons were made against two state‐of‐the‐art deep learning–based KBP methods from the literature. We also developed an additional benchmark, a two‐dimensional (2D) GAN model which predicts dose to each axial slice independently. For all models, we investigated the impact of multiplicatively scaling the predictions before optimization, such that the predicted dose distributions achieved all target clinical criteria. Each KBP model was trained on 130 previously delivered oropharyngeal treatment plans. Performance was tested on 87 out‐of‐sample previously delivered treatment plans. All KBAP plans were evaluated using clinical planning criteria and compared to their corresponding clinical plans. KBP prediction quality was assessed using dose‐volume histogram (DVH) differences from the corresponding clinical plans.
The best performing KBAP plans were generated using predictions from the 3D GAN model that were multiplicatively scaled. These plans satisfied 77% of all clinical criteria, compared to the clinical plans, which satisfied 67% of all criteria. In general, multiplicatively scaling predictions prior to optimization increased the fraction of clinical criteria satisfaction by 11% relative to the plans generated with nonscaled predictions. Additionally, these KBAP plans satisfied the same criteria as the clinical plans 84% and 8% more frequently as compared to the two benchmark methods, respectively.
We developed the first knowledge‐based automated planning framework using a 3D generative adversarial network for prediction. Our results, based on 217 oropharyngeal cancer treatment plans, demonstrated superior performance in satisfying clinical criteria and generated more realistic plans as compared to the previous state‐of‐the‐art approaches.

Botti, S., Giesler, M., Stefano, P. and Walker, R. (2020). "Consumers and Artificial Intelligence: An Experiential Perspective", Journal of Marketing.

Open Access Download

Abstract Artificial intelligence (AI) helps companies offer important benefits to consumers, such as health monitoring with wearable devices, advice with recommender systems, peace of mind with smart household products, and convenience with voice-activated virtual assistants. However, although AI can be seen as a neutral tool to be evaluated on efficiency and accuracy, this approach does not consider the social and individual challenges that can occur when AI is deployed. This research aims to bridge these two perspectives: on one side, the authors acknowledge the value that embedding AI technology into products and services can provide to consumers. On the other side, the authors build on and integrate sociological and psychological scholarship to examine some of the costs consumers experience in their interactions with AI. In doing so, the authors identify four types of consumer experiences with AI: (1) data capture, (2) classification, (3) delegation, and (4) social. This approach allows the authors to discuss policy and managerial avenues to address the ways in which consumers may fail to experience value in organizations’ investments into AI and to lay out an agenda for future research.

Belk, R., Humayun, M. and Gopaldis, A. (2020). "Artificial Life", Journal of Macromarketing, 40(2), 221-236.

Open Access Download

Abstract In this article, we explore how the history and myths about Artificial Life (AL) inform the pursuit and reception of contemporary AL technologies. First, we show that long before the contemporary fields of robotics and genomics, ancient civilizations attempted to create AL in the magical and religious pursuits of automata and alchemy. Next, we explore four persistent cultural myths surrounding AL—namely, those of Pygmalion, Golem, Frankenstein, and Metropolis. These myths offer several insights into why humanity is both fascinated with and fearful of AL. Thereafter, we distinguish contemporary approaches to AL, including biochemical or “wet” approaches (e.g., artificial organs), electromechanical or “hard” approaches (e.g., robot companions), and software-based or “soft” approaches (e.g., digital voice assistants). We also outline an emerging approach to AL that combines all three of the preceding approaches in pursuit of “transhumanism.” We then map out how the four historical myths surrounding AL shape modern society’s reception of the four contemporary AL pursuits. Doing so reveals the enduring human fears that must be addressed through careful development of ethical guidelines for public policy that ensure human safety, dignity, and morality. We end with two sets of questions for future research: one supportive of AL and one more skeptical and cautious.

Belk, R., Jordan, W., Ortner, M. and Schweitzer, F. (2019). "Servant, Friend, or Master? The Relationships Users Build with Voice Controlled Smart Devices", Journal of Marketing Management, 35 (7/8), 693-715.

Open Access Download

Abstract This paper investigates the different relationships consumers build with anthropomorphised devices and how these relationships affect actual and intended future usage. An exploratory, three-week empirical study of 39 informants using voice controls on their smartphone uncovered a diversity of relationships that the informants built with such devices. We complement anthropomorphism theory by drawing on extended-self theorising to identify three primary roles that emerge from consumers’ interactions with these devices. Our findings theorise the distinct ways in which consumers perceive the object agency of anthropomorphised smart devices and how these perceptions impact the consumers’ engagement and future use intentions.

Lévesque, M. and N. Joglekar (2018). "Guest Editorial: Resource, Routine, Reputation or Regulation Shortages: Can Data- and Analytics-driven Capabilities Inform Tech Entrepreneur Decisions?", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 65(4), 537-544.

Open Access Download

Abstract The five papers in this special section explore the use of data analytics in current business and management decision making. Entrepreneurial ingenuity plays a crucial role in building new business enterprises, especially when resources are lacking, routines are nonexistent, a firm’s reputation is not established, and/or regulations are inadequate. Resources in the form of human capital are often the foundation of independent startups or new corporate business ventures. Routines in the form of organizational and technical processes are often key in building these new ventures. Reputation in terms of an entrepreneur’s accomplishments or network is essential for acquiring needed resources and developing fundamental routines to initiate, commit to, organize, and grow the startup. Examines the impacts of such shortages create threats or opportunities for independent startups and new business ventures spun off from established firms.

Belk, R. (2016). "Comprendre le Robot: Commentaires sur Goudey et Bonnin (“Understanding the Robot: Comments on Goudey and Bonnin”)", Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 31(4), 89-97.

View Paper

Abstract Goudey and Bonnin provide an important demonstration of our willingness to accept robots regardless of the degree to which they look like us. This comment seeks to expand their insights in two ways. First, by broadening our conception of what constitutes a robot, I argue that we have already accepted many non-humanoid robots, and that even robotic entities without a visual presence can be compelling and engaging. Second, I suggest expanding the original paper’s psychological treatment of category ambiguity through the anthropological treatment of Mary Douglas. Douglas suggests that category ambiguity is abhorrent because things perceived to transgress categorical boundaries challenge our cultural beliefs and social order. In the case of robots, the beliefs that are challenged are our basic understandings of what makes humans unique and privileged in the world. As machines grow more and more capable, by some accounts they threaten to eclipse and even supplant the human race. I identify several behavioral and ethical research issues that are imperative if we are to deal with and prepare for such possibilities.